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Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs - http://planet.atlantides.org/maia

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    My Fox Chicago

    Exciting new discoveries at the Field Museum are unlocking some mummy mysteries.

    Last summer, the museum staff wheeled out their mummies into a special mobile X-ray scanner in the parking lot. The scanner revealed some never-before-known details about the mummies and what's really inside those wraps.

    Some of the mummies have been at the Field Museum for over 50 years, but never have they revealed so much.

    The scans and mummies are now on display, and for the first time ever, the Field Museum can get into the minutia of the mummies.

    Some of the mummies come from ancient Egypt and others from Peru. There are men and women, girls and boys, and all of them have a story to tell.



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    Egypt Exploration Society

    EA 40 will be published in February/March 2012. The EES news pages include a progress report by Chris Naunton on the rehousing of the Society's Lucy Gura Archive, and accounts of two recent trips made by groups of EES members - to Berlin and Ethiopia - as well as news and photographs from the Society's 2011 Annual General Meeting and other events. In addition to regular features such as ‘Digging Diary’  and ‘Bookshelf’  the issue includes the third in the series of short interviews with leading Egyptologists, Five minutes with Neal Spencer, and the following articles:

    David Jeffreys, Memphis in the Middle Kingdom: the field school. Inset: Rebuilding the Memphis workroom

    Joanne Rowland, The first archaeological field school at Quesna

    Kenneth Griffin, The Book of the Dead in the tomb of Karakhamun

    Veit Vaelske, Terracottas from Tell Basta

    Pascale Ballet and Gergory Marouard, Workshops and urban settlement in Buto. Inset: Bérengère Redon and Guy Lecuyot, The baths of Buto

    Robert Schiestl, Investigating ancient settlements around Buto

    Angela McDonald and Sally-Anne Coupar, The Egyptological afterlife of Colin Campbell

    Manuela Lehmann, The city of Avaris after the New Kingdom

    Manfred Bietak, The archaeology of the 'gold of valour'

    Margaret Maitland, Pharaoh: ideal and reality

    Pierre Tallet and Gergory Marouard, An early pharaonic harbour on the Red Sea coast

    Bookshelf has reviews by Alice Stevenson (Tine Bagh, Finds from W M F Petrie's excavations in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek), Rosalie David (John H Taylor, Egyptian Mummies), John H Taylor (Agathe Legros and Fréderic Payraudeau (eds), Secrets de Momies) and Peter A Clayton (Ivor Noël Hume, Belzoni: The Giant Archaeologists Love to Hate), with an account by Anna Baghiani and John J Taylor of the recent identification of the grave of Sarak Belzoni.

    Digging Diary has brief reports on recent fieldwork in Egypt, including a note by Susanne Bickel on the recent discovery of KV 64.



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    The New York Times (Mike Elkin)

    More than 2,600 years after the Greeks founded the city of Cyrene in the mountains of northeastern Libya, the ancient gymnasium’s high stone walls still shield athletes from the winter winds as they train among the ruins.

    Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi disavowed pre-1969 history as colonialist and un-Libyan. Now that he is gone, heritage-conscious Libyans have drafted a plan to preserve the ruins at Cyrene and promote them as a tourist attraction in a rural area where unemployment is high.

    Abdallah al-Mortdy, a 52-year-old architect, grew up just a few kilometers from Cyrene, but did not study the ruins, now a Unesco World Heritage site, until he left Libya at age 19 to study architecture in Florence. In the years since returning home, however, he says he cannot let two or three days go by without taking a stroll through the remains of the vast colony blanketing the hills and valleys of the Green Mountains. Spanning 7 square kilometers, or 3 square miles, the excavated and restored ruins include a temple to Zeus, a sanctuary to Apollo, a Greek agora and a Roman forum, Byzantine baths, and more than 1,000 rock-cut tombs dotting the countryside.

    In the 1940s, Italian archaeologists raised many of the walls and columns that had collapsed since an earthquake in the year 365, but about 75 percent of the city lies undisturbed, with bits and pieces poking out of the ground.


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    Luxor News (Jane Akshar)

    As this was the very first lecture about the newly discovered tomb KV64 the room was completely full but Suzanne teased us just a little bit by putting it in context with all the work they have done.

    The team are working on the undecorated non royal tombs in the wadi of KV34, originally 10 now 11 with KV64. The focal point of this valley is the tomb of Tuthmosis III KV34, he was a major pioneer of the entire area. The tombs are starting from the beginning of the wadi to KV33 and going back to the entrance again. (if you look on the Theban Mapping Project you can see the layout).
    • kV61
    • KV29
    • KV40
    • KV64
    • KV26
    • KV59
    • KV37
    • KV33
    • KV32
    • KV31
    • KV30
    The royal tombs KV42 and KV34 are in that wadi as well. They wanted to look at who had the privilege to be buried next to the king, was there any meaning in location, the architecture of the tombs etc

    The team first started with KV47 Siptah and the fact it broke in to KV32. It was a building accident that occurred 200 years after KV32 had been created. KV32 is Tija the mother of Tuthmosis IV. The debris in the tomb identified her.

    Their start point was the Theban Mapping Project http://www.thebanmappingproject.com on that some of their tombs are mapped and some are just indicated as holes filled with debris. However debris can be vital giving clues to the owner. KV29, 31, 40 and 59 are only indicated not mapped. Others like KV26 were mapped but have now been updated with more correct information. 




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    British Museum (Neal Spencer)

    With photos.

    Five weeks ago, Mary Shepperson revealed the remains of a stone doorway, tumbled into room two of house E13.6. Over the last few days we have reconstructed the gateway in the courtyard of our house – albeit laid flat on the ground rather than vertical…

    The imposing appearance of the doorway is now more evident, standing 2.35m tall, with a passageway of 88cm wide by 1.75m tall. In terms of scale, many of our field team would have to stoop to walk through the door.

    The lintel is made from an unusually fine sandstone – perhaps from Sai island – whereas the doorjambs are of the poor quality sandstone we more often encounter. This doorway would have been set into the mudbrick wall.

    The jambs are not inscribed – any inscription would have been into a layer of white plaster, now largely disappeared. On the lintel, the red- and yellow-painted hieroglyphs invoke the god Amun-Ra and Horus Lord of Ta-sety, and also refer to king Tuthmosis III.

    Interestingly, this door was not the main house door, but rather framed the entrance to the central reception room, with a low bench against its back wall.


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    iMalqata  (Catherine Roehrig)

    With two lovely photographs of the blue-painted pottery.

    In the first days we were on the site, before we hired any workmen, I stood between several pairs of mounds and eventually chose what I thought was the most likely location. I’m still fairly certain that I have the right pair of mounds – but, after four days, we haven’t found any walls of the “narrow house.” All we’ve found so far are a jumble of mud bricks and some lovely fragments of the distinctive blue-painted pottery that comes from this period – including two joining pieces of an open-mouthed Hathor jar like one we have at the Metropolitan Museum. Pottery is something Malqata has by the ton – though most of it isn’t decorated.



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    Ahram Online (Nevine El-Aref)

    With three photos.

    At an international press conference held on Egypt's Giza Plateau next Monday, Egyptian Minister of State for Antiquities Mohamed Ibrahim is expected to announce the launch of the second phase of the Khufu solar boat restoration project, which is being carried out in collaboration with a Japanese archaeological team from Wasida University.

    Ibrahim told Ahram Online that the team would collect samples of the boat’s wooden beams for analysis on Monday in order to draw up accurate plans for the boat's restoration in a special museum located on the plateau.

    The first phase of the project, carried out two years ago, assessed the area surrounding the second boat pit with the use of topographical radar surveys. A large hangar has since been built over the second pit, with a smaller hangar erected inside to cover the top of the boat itself. The hangars were especially designed to protect the wooden remains during the project's analysis and treatment phases.



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    I had not yet seen a contribution to the “What I Really Do” meme depicting religion professors, so I thought I’d try my hand at one. What do you think? Any suggestions for improvements?

    EDIT: Here’s another one, on the same theme, lest it seem that I either think that all religion professors are men, and lest in trying to divide the roles in one meme image, someone read too much into which ones I assign to men or women.


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    The J. Paul Getty Museum is to have a new director, Dr Timothy Potts, presently director of the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge ("Dr. Timothy Potts Named Director of the J. Paul Getty Museum", press release). James Cuno, president and CEO of the Getty Trust, is quoted:

    I have known Dr. Potts for almost fifteen years and have worked closely with him on policy positions taken by the Association of Art Museum Directors. I know him to be a person of integrity, intelligence, advanced learning, and refined connoisseurship.
    The press release draws attention to Potts' acquisition of an Athenian cup attributed to Douris for the Kimbell (inv. AP 2000.02). The cup appeared in the Royal Ontario Museum exhibition, Glimpses of Excellence: a Selection of Greek Vases and Bronzes from the Elie Borowski Collection. A Special Exhibition---18 December 1984 to 30 June 1985 (no. 12). The cup was sold at Christie's Rockefeller Plaza New York (Ancient Greek Vases Formerly in the Private Collection of Dr. Elie Borowski on Monday 12 June 2000, lot 81 for $1.766 million. The Kimbell claims that after the Toronto exhibition the cup was "sold to a Japanese oil company, probably late 1980s". It is also claimed that Borowski had acquired the cup by 1977 (although the basis of this statement is not provided).

    Borowski's name appears in the infamous "organigram" that features so centrally in the Medici Conspiracy.

    I raised the earlier collecting history of the cup in my Fall 2009 review of James Cuno (ed.), Whose Culture? (2009) in the Journal of Art Crime. I also noted the Kimbell's ("temporary") acquisition of a "Sumerian" statue for a reported $2.7 million in 2000.

    It would be interesting to learn more about Potts' position on recently surfaced antiquities. Lee Rosenbaum has a helpful transcript of Potts' response at the 2006 symposium on "Museums and the collecting of antiquities" (that forms the basis of Cuno's uneven Whose Culture?). Ralph Frammolino and Jason Felch have an assessment of Potts' appointment and comment specifically on the Douris cup.


    Bookmark and Share so Your Real Friends Know that You Know

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    A lake in the north western region of Spain, known as the Principality of Asturias, is revealing data of climatic changes as far back as 12,000 years ago. Lake Enol...

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    Around 11 Water Street, just North of King Street, you'll find a decommissioned truck from Rebman's, a shop of gifts and novelties. Rebman's was founded in 1954 and was a fixture in Lancaster's history as the place where everyone bought candy, costumes and games. The store closed in 2004. Chancing upon this late-20th-century graphic is what makes Lancaster a magical place. If you look at Google

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  • 02/17/12--21:19: Batten Down the Hatches!
  • A Greek museum containing major antiquities is looted: "Two armed robbers broke into an Olympia Museum and made off with between 60 to 70 bronze and clay pottery objects. They tied up and gagged the female security guard before using hammers to smash display cases and grab the loot."

    What can we learn from this? The key lesson is that the mere fact that artifacts are in a museum and recorded is not going to deter criminals who believe they are worth a lot of money on the black market. The criminals may be too stupid to know that fencing these hot objects may be difficult because a recorded artifact on the Art Loss Register or the like is almost certain to eventually be spotted if they come onto the auction house market or get donated to a museum. Or the criminals may be smart enough to have already set up a deal with a middleman or with a collector. Either way,the point is clear: antiquities cannot be protected only by a registry, if an illicit market exists.


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    The news of the armed robbery of the Olympia Museum was greeted with shock and dismay by the cultural community today, but among those involved in the trade in antiquities there was a totally different reaction. Dugup antiquity dealer Dave Welsh (Classical Coins) for example urges the immediate suspension of the implementation by the US of the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. He treats this theft by armed raiders as:
    incontrovertible evidence that Greece, given her present difficulties, cannot at this time be considered a safe custodian for ancient artifacts. The USA should immediately suspend repatriation of artifacts to Greece and enforcement of import restrictions requested by Greece, until an impartial investigation determines whether the Greek government is capable of providing secure custody of the artifacts for which it is presently responsible.
    What astounding nerve! First of all it is certainly not up to the United States of America to be the judge of whether another sovereign state should be a custodian of ITS OWN cultural property. This is sheer US imperialism raising its ugly head once again in dealers' dealings with the weaker nations of the world. Mr Welsh and his ACCG cronies would obviously willingly and without scruple take advantage of Greece's weakened position to keep in the USA any stolen Greek artefacts that may be found in that country. Disgusting.

    Secondly, the UNESCO Convention (see Art. 7 for example) and the CCPIA which implements it (19 U.S.C. 2607 and 2610) is meant to deal precisely, and arguably even primarily, with just such circumstances as we have here. A museum has been robbed and states parties to the Convention are asked to keep an eye open for the loot and stop it being imported into and acquired in their own territories. It is precisely at such a moment that Mr Welsh wants to prevent the Convention being implemented in the case of Greece? This would not by any chance have any connection with Mr Welsh's own involvement in the trade in artefacts of (among others) Greek origin would it? Why would any dealer want to see a suspension of the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property as a result of a major museum theft in one of his "source countries"?

    Thirdly, the only reason this raid was carried out was so the thieves (and we may speculate that they could be part of an armed - and even foreign - organized criminal group) could get their hands on valuable finds which they will try to monetise. Where? Pottery has minimal scrap value, so it seems they were taking items with a thought for their value on the no-questions-asked antiquities market. The very same international antiquities market that Dave Welsh and his organization the ACCG apparently support and wish to maintain. This raid would not have happened had there not been a market where stolen antiquities can safely be sold off, only to "surface" anonymously later. Collectors who buy stuff without requiring information where actually it came from are as much to blame for these sorts of thefts as those who see in the current state of the market a golden opportunity too good to miss.

    Fourthly, it took kalashnikovs to loot this museum and the violent treatment of a museum guard. The ANS money Museum in the USA was robbed much more easily, through a fault in the internal auditing system which allowed a thief to take a million dollars worth of objects probably over a period of time, and earlier another theft of the same type to take place. As I said earlier, there has not been a peep about this on the coiney anti-preservationist blogs, let alone a call from US coineys for a deep investigation of museum security in the US. And these are the people whingeing about "discrimination"...

    Finally, it is misleading to present the fight against the trade in illicit antiquities merely as a drive for "repatriation". Its not about what to do with the proceeds of crime, but preventing the crime. Let us not ignore the crime, let us call a spade a spade - even if no-questions-asked traders and collectors cannot bring themselves to.

    Vignette: Dodger and Fagin discussing a "newly surfaced" coin. Some dealers in such "collectables" apparently hanker for a return to the golden period of culture-theft before the UNESCO Convention, they apparently would feel better working in a more nineteenth-century mode.

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    The antiquities issues in the background to the appointment of Timothy Potts as director of the Getty Museum from September are discussed by Jason Felch in the Los Angeles Times ('Antiquities issue rears head with Getty leaders Potts, Cuno in place', Feb 17th) with a summary on the Chasing Aphrodite blog ('Cheat Sheet on Timothy Potts, New Director of the Getty Museum').

    Now see this: 'Kimbell Art Museum Responds To Questions About Ancient Cup Acquired Under Timothy Potts', Chasing Aphrodite blog Feb 17.


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    The news that is guaranteed to send US antiquities dealers into paroxysms of delighted 'gottcha' - excitement is that about 7:30 this morning, the Museum of the History of the Olympic Games in Ancient Olympia (a UNESCO World Heritage site) in southern Greece was robbed. Two (?) masked artefact thieves armed with Kalashnikovs and reportedly speaking "broken Greek" ambushed and overpowered a 48-year old female museum guard starting her morning shift having previously knocked out the alarm. The criminals demanded that she tell them where the "golden wreath" (the museum has no such object) was kept. Before she had time to summon help, the intruders tied her up and gagged her and then set about smashing the reinforced glass fronts of selected cases with a hammer and stole dozens of items on display. The robbers are believed to have escaped in a car driven by an accomplice. It is reported that an inventory of the missing items was not yet available, but local authorities and police said about 68 bronze and pottery artefacts are estimated to have snatched, they were apparently mainly figurines, but the thieves also took a gold seal ring dating to Late Bronze Age Mycenaean times. Greek state television has reported that culture minister Pavlos Geroulanos immediately tendered his resignation after learning of the robbery and was at the scene soon afterwards. Police have set up roadblocks in an attempt to prevent the thieves leaving the area.




    Sources:
    BBC
    Associated Press
    Daily Mail (updated)
    Al Jazeera
    New Europe
    Savvas Hadjigeorgiou, 'Thieves Break Into Ancient Olympia Museum In Greece', CyprusNewsReport 17/02/2012.


    Video

    Photos: Objects from the Museum, some of which may have been among those taken. Aerial view of site of robbery from the BBC.

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  • 02/17/12--23:27: Not About "Repatriations"
  • .
    American collectors and dealers' lobbyists don't seem to get it. Thick as planks the lot of them. They are constantly banging on about how the US "should not repatriate" stolen artefacts to countries like Greece (their current bête noire) when the 'natives' "cannot look after them" (for example totally prevent them being stolen by armed raiders). Typical of the sort of comment is this one from Bailey and Ehrenbergs' Peter Tompa:

    'Greece in Meltdown; Archaeologists in Denial' [...] The Greek financial meltdown has led to further cuts in Greece's already poorly funded cultural establishment [...] Yet, it's business as usual in the archaeological blogosphere. Bash the collectors and museums. Call for more repatriations.
    Let us be clear that what the United States (which quite clearly is all that concerns Welthaupstadt-Washington-based Tompa here) is "repatriating" are objects which are seized under US law because they are illicit (in the eyes of US law). Recovered stolen property, artefacts detected in the process of being smuggled into the country and suchlike.

    The 1970 UNESCO Convention, the implementation of which US dealers in certain types of dugup artefacts are kicking, is called the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. The word "repatriation" does not occur in the title (nor, indeed the body of the text of the Convention's 26 articles). The series of administrative processes to which dealers' lobbyists like Tompa and Welsh so strongly and vociferously object are intended - as it says on the box - to combat the ILLICIT trade in antiquities.

    So yes, let us bash collectors who do not do anything much to avoid buying illicit antiquities, whose carefree self-centred behaviour allows the illicit trade to flourish. Let us bash museums that do the same. Why should we not?

    So, instead of merely "repatriation" of the proceeds, I'd like to see the US doing more to haul those with illicit antiquities in their possession, or found to have been dealing in them up in front of a judge, have their perp-walk photos in an orange jumpsuit in all the papers. Let's have their names. Let culture crime be treated as what it is, a crime against 'humanity', stealing from all of us. Let those found to be involved be sent somewhere where the US authorities by the various subtle or not so subtle (legal we are assured) means at their disposal do their best to find out the names of their accomplices. Let them too then face justice. This is not just about Good Ol' Uncle Sam giving back the proceeds of a crime to some of its victims with a patronising smile and the obligatory scripted cultural pep-talk speechette. Let Tompa and Welsh and all the rest of the ACCG and their hangers on realise this is about fighting a crime. One which, if they tell the truth about their own beliefs, motivations and mores, one would have thought they'd care a lot more about seeing prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.

    But no, for them it seems it is all about stolen artefacts being taken away from the US market where they cannot get them and going back abroad. Who is the real Black Beast here? Who here is "in denial"?

    Vignette: Collectors' bete noire (drawing copyright Pierrick Martinez)

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    Trojan Horse
    © Clipart.com

    True or False?

    • Homer describes the Trojan Horse in the final book of The Iliad.
    • Achilles was one of the leading warriors inside the Trojan Horse.
    • Odysseus was a draft dodger.
    Find the answers in: Trojan War FAQs

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  • 02/18/12--03:00: Ovid, Art of Love 2.107
  • ut ameris amabilis esto.

    If you want to be loved – be loveable!


    Filed under: Ovid

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    Arab World English Journal (AWEJ)
    ISSN: 2229-9327

    http://www.awej.org/awejicons/logo.gif
    Welcome to the Arab World English Journal (AWEJ). AWEJ is a refereed, peer-reviewed, and open-access e-journal for scholars, researchers, teachers, and officials of the English language in the Arab countries and in the entire world.

    With the coming of globalization and E-era, there is a general consensus among most scholars, educationalists, and policy makers that English language is the language and the tool of globalization and internationalization. Globalization has the power to make English language universal. Although the distance between countries has become closer, the competition is getting fiercer. Therefore, the ministries and departments of education as well as universities in most of countries of the world have launched quantum activities to develop and update their English teaching programs to cope with the new challenges.

     Most Arab countries teach English language as part of their public education, but unfortunately, educators, teachers, and officials are unhappy with these programs due to the poor results, outcomes and performances of many students. Hence, it is easy to note that the quality of instruction has inhibited students’ English language proficiency over the years. In addition,, there are several other key issues like the growing disparity in competence in English among students and a lack of English competence among many teachers who have not effectively advanced the language.

    The Arab World English Journal has a clear vision of the current situation of English teaching and learning in the Arab countries, and through AWEJ we hope to establish a forum for lively professional discussion to promote the development of links between language-related research and its application in educational and other professional settings. We believe that as globalization continues to make the world a smaller place, we need to make certain that students gain the skills and knowledge to excel in whatever careers they pursue.

    AWEJ is only possible with great support from the international community as reflected by the diversity of our editorial board members, whom I would like to thank personally. We very much welcome your feedback and invite you to share your experiences and insights. 
    PDF



    AWEJ Volume 1. No.1 October, 2010
    PDF



    Contents
    PDF
    P.1



    Article PDF
    Professor Z. N. PATIL
    PP.3-23



    Article PDF
    Professor Cameron Richards
    PP. 24-39



    Article PDF
    Dr. Victoria Tuzlukova
    Dr. Alaa Al-Musalli
    Assist.Prof. Dr. Rahma AlMahrooqi
    PP. 40-79



    Article PDF
    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Channarong Intaraprasert
    PP.80-106



    Article PDF
    Dr. Khairi Obaid Al-Zubaidi
    Prof. Cameron Rechards
    PP.107-129



    Article PDF
    David Bradley Kent
    PP.130-170



    AWEJ Volume 2. No.1 January,2011
    PDF
    ISSN: 2229-9327



    PDF
    P.1



    PDF
    P.2



    PDF Full paper
    Romana Dolati
    Prof. Dr. Cameron Richards



    PDF Full paper
    Jaishree Umale, PhD.



    PDF Full paper
    Ahmed AlKilabi, PhD
    Laila Z.Al-Salmi



    PDF Full paper
    Hosney El-daly, PhD



    PDF Full paper
    Rahma Ibrahim
    Al-Mahrooqi,PhD



    PDF Full paper
    Haifa Al Buainain, PhD



    PDF Full paper
    Neil McBeath



    PDF Full paper
    Abdulmuhsen Ayedh Alqahtani,PhD



    PDF Full paper
    Pauline Ghenghesh (PhD)



    AWEJ Volume 2, number 2, April 2011
    Full PDF
    Pauline Ghenghesh (PhD)



    Contents
    PDF
    P.1



    PDF
    P.1



    Full Paper PDF Abstract PDF
    Mohamed Amin Abdel Gawad Mekheimer, Ph.D



    Full Paper PDF Abstract PDF
    Javid, Z. Choudhary. PhD



    Full Paper PDF Abstract PDF
    Sally Ali, PhD



    Full Paper PDF AbstractPDF
    Wenhua Hsu, PhD



    Full Paper PDF Abstract PDF
    AbdulRahman Al Asmari. PhD



    Full Paper PDF Abstract PDF
    T Balasubramanian,



    Full Paper PDF Abstract PDF
    Basmah Issa Tlelan Al-Saleem



    Full Paper PDF Abstract PDF
    Pro. Dr.Prashant Mishra



    Full Paper PDF Abstrat PDF
    Naheed Umair



    Full Paper PDF Abstract PDF
    Dr. Rahma I. Al-Mahrooqi



    Full Paper PDF Abstract PDF
    Adcharawan Buripakdi, PhD



    Full Paper PDF
    Reviewer: Mohamed Mekheimer



    Volume 2 No.3 August 2011
    Reviewer: Mohamed Mekheimer



    PDF
    Reviewer: Mohamed Mekheimer



    PDF
    Reviewer: Mohamed Mekheimer



    PDF Abstract PDF
    Prof. Jean-Claude Bertin



    PDF Abstract PDF
    Dr Abdulmoneim Mahmoud



    PDF Abstract PDF
    Dr. Dona Vassall-Fall



    PDF Abstract PDF
    Professor Guey, Ching-Chung
    Paul C. Talley
    Huang, Lee-Jung



    PDF Abstract PDF
    Hashil Mohammed Al-Saadi



    PDF Abstract PDF
    Dr. Carol Ann Goff-Kfouri



    PDF Abstract PDF
    Dr. Abbas Zare-ee



    PDF Abstract PDF
    Dr. Khalaf Al-Makhzoomi
    Dr. Saleh Freihat



    PDF Abstract PDF
    Baxter Jackson



    AWEJ Vol.2 No.4 December 2011
    Baxter Jackson



    Contents PDF
    PP.1-2



    PDF
    PP.3-4



    Full Paper PDF
    Richard Kiely
    PP.5-36



    Full Paper PDF
    Dr. Rachid Bendriss
    Dr. Krystyna Golkowska
    PP. 37-57



    Full Paper PDF
    David F Dalton
    PP. 58-87



    PDF Full Paper
    Dr. Jaishree Umale
    PP.88-135



    Dr. Mohammed Abdel Hakim Farrah
    PP.136-170



    Full Paper PDF
    Dr. S.Devaki Reddy
    PP. 171-193



    Full Paper PDF
    Dr. Asaad Al-Saleh
    PP. 194-218



    Full Paper PDF
    Dr. Choudhry Zahid Javid
    Dr. Muhammad Hannan Al-Khairi
    PP. 219-256



    Full Paper PDF
    Dr.Fakieh Abduh Alrabai
    PP.257-285



    Full Paper PDF
    Drs. Supardi, MPd
    PP.286-301



    Full Paper PDF
    Dr. Nasrin Al-Lawati
    PP.302-322



    PDF
    Reviewed by Krishna Bista
    PP.323-327



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