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  • 12/26/18--06:53: Women Biblical Scholars
  • Women Biblical Scholars

    Throughout history women have loved, studied, and taught the Jewish and Christian scriptures. Unfortunately, many of us have never heard of these biblical scholars and thinkers. Often they are left out of history books and classroom discussion. The goal of this blog is to draw attention to the works of women and discover what they contribute to our understanding of the biblical texts. With greater awareness, this scholarship can shape course curriculum, homilies, public discourse, and academia itself.
    The blog includes profiles, interviews, book reviews, and other means to spotlight women biblical scholars. Of particular interest are scholars whose work contributes to the thriving of faith communities and advances helpful discussion of religion in our contemporary world. Check out the developing Index of Scholars for names and works of women across history. This makes it easy to find the primary texts you want. Also don’t miss seeing today’s women biblical scholars in action–our growing Video and Audio page gives you access to lectures, presentations, and interviews. Finally, if you are looking for a dictionary on women interpreters or want to read a memoir or biography of a female scholar be sure to stop by the Books page.
    If you know of something that should be added to this site, would like to contribute a guest post, or help develop the index of scholars please e-mail:

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    Fabien Bièvre-Perrin et Élise Pampanay (éd.), Antiquipop : la référence à l'Antiquité dans la culture populaire contemporaine, Lyon, 2018.

    Éditeur : MOM éditions
    Collection : TMO - HS
    EAN électronique : 9782356680662


    Citée discrètement, utilisée comme toile de fond ou comme motif principal, l'Antiquité irrigue, inspire et influence les productions audiovisuelles contemporaines de tout genre. La culture classique occupe en effet une place majeure dans la construction des sociétés occidentales et fait depuis de nombreuses années l'objet de travaux scientifiques, notamment dans les pays anglo-saxons. Ces études, que certains nomment les « reception studies », commencent depuis peu à intéresser la recherche française. Cependant, celle-ci se concentre avant tout sur l'époque moderne et les débuts de la période contemporaine, délaissant la période la plus actuelle. De plus, les études concernant les manifestations les plus récentes de l'Antiquité dans la culture populaire se consacrent généralement à la littérature, à la bande dessinée et aux péplums, ceux de la vague d'après 2000 ayant cependant été peu traités.
    Ce volume rassemble les actes du colloque Antiquipop qui s'est tenu en mai 2016 à Lyon. Il propose de se concentrer sur les références à l'Antiquité dans la culture populaire la plus contemporaine, et sur des supports trop peu considérés : le jeu vidéo, les séries télévisées, l'art, la musique pop… Ces médias, à la fois divers et interconnectés, et pour la plupart issus de la culture de masse, constituent une vaste interface entre nos sociétés et la culture classique : y étudier la présence de l'Antiquité fournit un miroir de notre époque et de notre rapport au passé, que les auteurs réunis ici proposent de saisir. En abordant des figures emblématiques, telles qu'Alexandre ou Cléopâtre, ou des références mythologiques, comme les sirènes ou les Amazones, ces actes offrent un panorama de ces représentations dans la culture populaire contemporaine et suggèrent d'analyser notre relation à l'Antiquité, dans toute sa profondeur et sa complexité.

    Lire la suite...

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     [First posted in AWOL 1 January 2017, updated 26 December 2018]

    Cahiers Intégrés de Médecine Égyptienne

    Ce troisième numéro des Cahiers Intégrés de Médecine Égyptienne (CIME– III ) correspond également à la troisième des Newsletters attachées au blog « Histoire de la médecine égyptienne ancienne » (ISSN 2270-2105). Il ne comprendra, pour cette fois encore, que la liste des principales études déjà publiées à ce jour dans la revue électronique. Ce fascicule est cependant augmenté des titres de l’année en cours, dont ceux consacré à l’Anatomie de l’appareil digestif. Soit un total accessible de près de 900 pages avec plus de 1000 figures sous cette présentation.

    CIME - V

    Publication du mercredi 26 décembre 2018 : Les CAHIERS INTEGRES de MEDECINE ÉGYPTIENNE - V (CIME - V)     • Richard-Alain JEAN, Anne-Marie LOYRETTE ✝ , Paula LUPO-GHALI, Jean-Pierre MARTIN, Xavier RIAUD et coll., Cahiers intégrés de médecine égyptienne (CIME ), V, 1, Paris - Le Caire, décembre 2018.   Disponibilité (gratuit) Cliquez :   CIME - V  


    CIME - IV
    Publication du vendredi 22 décembre 2017 : Les CAHIERS INTEGRES de MEDECINE ÉGYPTIENNE - IV (CIME-IV)         • Richard-Alain JEAN, Anne-Marie LOYRETTE, Paula LUPO-GHALI, Jean-Pierre MARTIN, Xavier RIAUD et coll., Cahiers intégrés de médecine égyptienne (CIME ), IV, 1, Angers - Paris - Le Caire, décembre 2017.   Disponibilité (gratuit) Cliquez : CIME - IV  


    Publication du samedi 30 décembre 2016 : Les CAHIERS INTEGRES de MEDECINE ÉGYPTIENNE - III (CIME-III)     • Fawzia HADGE-DIN, Abdel HAZIZ, Richard-Alain JEAN, Anne-Marie LOYRETTE ✝, Jean-Pierre MARTIN, Xavier RIAUD et coll., Cahiers intégrés de médecine égyptienne (CIME), III, Angers - Paris - Le Caire, décembre 2016 (ISBN 978-2-9541072-5-7).   Disponibilité (gratuit) Cliquez :  CIME - III  


    Publication du lundi mercredi 25 novembre 2015 : les CAHIERS INTEGRES de MEDECINE ÉGYPTIENNE - II (CIME-II)     • Fawzia HADGE-DIN, Abdel HAZIZ, Richard-Alain JEAN, Anne-Marie LOYRETTE, Jean- Pierre MARTIN, Xavier RIAUD et coll., Cahiers intégrés de médecine égyptienne (CIME ), II, 1, Cherbourg - Angers - Paris - Le Caire, novembre 2015.    Disponibilité (gratuit) Cliquez : CIME - II  

    CIME - I avec NEWSLETTER - 1

    Publication du samedi 5 juillet LES CAHIERS INTÉGRÉS DE MÉDECINE ÉGYPTIENNE - I & NEWSLETTER - 1     • Fawzia HADGE-DIN, Abdel HAZIZ, Richard-Alain JEAN, Anne-Marie LOYRETTE, Xavier RIAUD et coll., Cahiers intégrés de médecine égyptienne (CIME), I, Cherbourg - Paris - Le Caire, juillet 2014.   Disponibilité (gratuit) Cliquez : CIME - I  & NEWSLETTER - 1 

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    Back in October I received an email enquiring about the chapter headings in the manuscripts of Arator.  My first reaction, like yours, was to wonder who on earth was Arator!  So I thought that it might be interesting to give some information here about this obscure figure, and discuss the question posed to me.

    Let’s start with Arator himself.  He lived in the early 6th century, in northern Italy, and wrote a single work, on the Acts of the Apostles, generally labelled Historia Apostolica, or sometimes De Actibus Apostolis.

    Few perhaps are aware that a sixth volume of Quasten’s Patrology exists, covering the Latin authors from the end of vol. 4 up to the time of the Venerable Bede.  Sadly it exists only in Italian.[1]  Let’s hear what it has to say:


    A little information on the life of this poet and his writings is given to us in the Variae of Cassiodorus and in the works of Ennodius. We know that he was originally from the north of Italy and that his father, perhaps a teacher of rhetoric and certainly a man of high culture, had provided for his early education. Following the untimely death of his father, he was taken care of by the bishop of Milan, Laurentius, and so the young boy passed, together with the great Ennodius, into the school of Deuterius, as we learn from one of the Ennodian dictiones (number 9). There in Ravenna he established a great friendship with Parthenius, nephew of Ennodius, and they began to study the classics, especially the commentaries of Caesar, but also Christian authors such as St Ambrose, “Decentius” (as a rule identified with Dracontius) and Sidonius Apollinaris. The Gothic ruler Theodoric had the opportunity to appreciate his eloquence on the occasion of his participation, perhaps in 526, in an Dalmatian embassy, and Athalaric raised him to the position of Comes domesticorum and Comes privatorum He went to Rome in an unspecified year and was named subdeacon by Pope Vigilius. For four days, between April 13 and June 1, 544 AD, he had the honor of reading his poem on the Acts of the Apostles in the Roman church of St. Pietro in Vincoli, in the presence of clerics and laity, with frequent applause and repeated invitations to read some passages again. After that all trace of him is lost.

    Arator has left us a single poem in two books, the De actibus Apostolorum in which the two proemial charms are addressed to Florianus (12 couplets) and to Pope Vigilius (15 couplets); and the final metric epistle (51 couplets) is addressed to Parthenius. They are all one, if only for their illustrative character of the Aratorian poetics. Apparently the poem would appear to be a late product of that movement, inaugurated by Juvencus in the fourth century, whose obvious purpose was to excuse the rough simplicity of the biblical text by covering its contents with a metrically unexceptionable and stylistically elegant form; in other words to create a high-level Christian epic, up to the standard of the great classical tradition.

    This cliché does not quite fit the Arator’s poem. In fact, Arator chooses only a few episodes of Acts, reserving the first book for those relating to Peter, and the second to those concerning Paul. He gives much space, in imitation of his predecessor Sedulius, to the allegorical and moral interpretation of the succinctly expressed events, as well as, in some cases, to the mystique of numbers. In essence, the poem fits more decisively into the didascalic strand than into the epic one. This explains and justifies the good fortune that it had in the Middle Ages, as evidenced by the numerous commentaries produced upon it between the ninth and tenth centuries.

    Editions:CPL 1504-1505; PL 68, 63-252 (H.J. Arntzen, Zutphiae 1769); G.L Perugi, Venezia 1909; A.P. McKinlay, CSEL 72, Vindobonae 1951.

    Studies: J. Schrödinger, Das Epos des Arator De actibus apostolorum in seinem Verhältnis zu Vergil, Progr., Weiden 1911; A. Ansorge, De Aratore veterum poetarum Latinorum imitatore, Breslau 1914; R. Anastasi, “Dati biografici su Aratore in Ennodio”: MSLC 1 (1947) 145-152; K. Thraede, “Arator”. JbAC 4 (1961) 187-196; F. Châtillon, “Arator déclamateur antijuif”. RMAL 19 (1963) 5-128; 197-216; 20 (1964) 185-225; S. Blomgren, Ad Aratorem et Fortunatum adnotationes. Eranos 72 (1974) 143-155; R.J. Schrader, Arator revalutation: CF 31 (1977) 64-77; D. Kanschoke, Bibeldichtung, Munchen 1975, 53-55; 72-74; 93-97; G.R. Wieland, The Latin Glosses on Arator and Prudentius in Cambridge University Library; Ms. Gg. 5, 35, Toronto 1983; H. Tiffenbach, Altdeutsche Aratorglossen, Paris. B.N. lat. 8318: AAWG 3, 107, 1977; L.T. Martin, The Influence of Arator in Anglo-Saxon England, in: Proceedings of the PMR Conference, Villanova 1985; P. Angelucci, I modelli classici di Aratore. Per una tipologia dei rapporti poeta-fonte. Boll. Studi Lat. 15 (1985) 40-50; R.J. Schrader, Notes on the Text. Interpretation of the Sources of Arator. VC 42 (1988) 75-78; P.A. Deproost, La mort de Judas dans l’”Historia apostolica” d’Arator. REAug 35 (1988) 75-78; Idem, Les functions apostoliques du sacre dans le poème d’Arator. BAGB (1989) 376-393; Idem, Les images de l’heroisme triomphale dans l'”Historia apostolica” d’Arator, in: SP 23, Leuven 1989, 111-118; N. Wright, Arator’s Use of Caelius Sedulius: a Re-Examination: Eranos 87 (1989) 51-64; P. Angelucci, Centralità della Chiesa e primato romano in Aratore, Roma 1990; P.A. Deproost, L’Apotre Pierre dans une épopée du VIe siècle. L'”Historia apostolica” d’Arator, Paris 1990; Idem, Notes sur le texte et l’interpretation d’Arator. VC 44 (1990) 76-82.

    That’s a rather wordy description, but clear enough for our purposes.  The successful public reading in 544 is known to us from a subscriptio to several of the manuscripts in which the work is transmitted.[2]

    A deeply obscure English translation appeared in 1987.[3]  A modern French edition and translation exists in Les Belles Lettres series, and there is also a Portugese one[4]

    There is apparently a complex manuscript tradition, as the poem was popular in the middle ages.  Unfortunately, lacking access to McKinlay’s edition, I can’t say anything about this.

    But what about the table of contents and chapter titles, with which the original enquiry was concerned?  Well, the table of contents appears in the Patrologia Latina edition, which reprints the Arntzenius edition, but only in his introduction, in columns 58-9.  Apparently the capitula– the chapter headings – were still unprinted when McKinlay started work on his edition.[5]  Here’s the start of them:

    The verse numbers are no doubt modern.  My correspondent was asking about the unusual usage “De eo ubi…”, “Concerning that passage where”.  For the text is a retelling of the Acts of the Apostles, so it is perfectly reasonable to refer to the passage of scripture.

    Notice how often the verb appears, not at the end as in ancient texts, but in the middle of the sentences, just as it would in a modern language.  This by itself suggests that the chapter titles are not ancient, but medieval.

    McKinlay reviewed 20 manuscripts, for both the table of contents (‘tituli’) and the in-body headings (‘capitula’).  The tituli and capitula differ, as is very common.  Furthermore they were not revised capriciously by scribes, as might be supposed, but rather were handled not much less carefully than the main text.  Rather the manuscripts fall neatly into two groups. The text of the items was revised, at some point during their transmission, and made closer to the biblical text.  They predate 820 AD, when they appear in ms. Paris 12284.

    It all tends to show that we need much more information on these meta-textual elements.  The statements in the handbooks that have always tended to skip over the headings as late (which they may be) and often corrupt (which they may sometimes be) need to be based on something other than anecdote.  In the last century we have seen much more care taken with these elements in the medieval manuscripts.  If this is done enough, one day a monograph will be possible which can survey the field.  But not yet!


    1. [1]Angelo di Berardino &c, Patrologia: I Padri latini (secoli V – VIII), Marietti (1996).
    2. [2]Roger P.H. Green, Latin Epics of the New Testament: Juvencus, Sedulius, Arator, Oxford (2006), p.251-2; edition and translation of the subscriptio on p.391-2.  This item is edited from mss. Voss. Q 15 and Q 86, and Vat. Pal. Lat. 1716; but another 8 mss are known.
    3. [3]R.J. Schrader, Arator’s On the acts of the Apostles (De Actibus Apostolorum), Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987.
    4. [4]Bruno Bureau, Paul-Augustin Deproost, Histoire apostolique / Arator; texte établi, traduit et commenté, Paris : Les Belles Lettres 2017; José Henrique Manso, História apostólica a gesta de S. Paulo / Arátor, Coimbra : Centro de Estudos Clássicos e Humanísticos 2010.
    5. [5]A.P. McKinlay, “Studies in Arator: I. The Manuscript Tradition of the Capitula and Tituli”, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 43 (1932), pp. 123-166. JSTOR.

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    Newly added to Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Series Archaeologica Online, There are 38volumes of this series now online open access.

    Berlev, OlegHodjash, Svetlana (1998). Catalogue of the Monuments of Ancient Egypt: From the Museums of the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Bielorussia, Caucasus, Middle Asia and the Baltic States. Fribourg, Switzerland / Göttingen, Germany: University Press / Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
    Tell Keisan (1971-1976): une cité phénicienne en Galilée. Edited by: Briend, JacquesHumbert, Jean-Baptiste (1980). Fribourg, Switzerland / Göttingen, Germany: Éditions Universitaires / Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

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    Scholars in Press: An interview with Alex Andrason

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  • 12/27/18--01:44: Women Biblical Scholars
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  • 12/27/18--02:37: Timeless God
  • I enjoyed the television show Timeless immensely ever since it first started, and now that the show has concluded, I want to blog about it, as perhaps I should have done episode by episode all along. The idea of temporal terrorism was just coming into view on Star Trek: Enterprise when it was cancelled, and […]

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    Scholars in Press: An Interview with Jimmy Parks

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    Anonymous reader:
    "Our area [somewhere "up North" PMB] was always a relative backwater when it came to metal detectorists. Now the numbers have exploded, we even have a local detector shop. It is so bad that I have been reluctant to record new sites on the HER (I always do but it really irks to know that new to science also means totally unprotected from detecting interest). It has been a good month for such as google released the 'drought' images. You wait nearly 6,000 years for a henge then four come all at once. "
    and of course thicko acquisitive metal detector wielding artefact hunters will be up there dirt fishing around for all they are worth - and if the site is remote enough, whether or not they bother to get the landowner's permission. And the archaeologists will be rubbing their hands with glee, because some of the 'goodies' will fall into their object-hungry laps and no need to bovver too much about documenting context, eh. 'Findspot will do fine'. 

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    [First posted in AWOL  9 April 2018]

    Studia palmyreńskie
    ISSN: 0081-6787

    Die Zeitschrift Studia Palmyreńskie erschien von 1966 bis 2013. Seit 2014 wird sie als monographische Reihe veröffentlicht. 
    Der inhaltliche Fokus liegt auf den Ausgrabungen von Palmyra und seiner Umgebung sowie auf der Geschichte der Stadt, ihrer Religion oder ihren epigraphischen Hinterlassenschaften. Herausgegeben werden Zeitschrift „Studia Palmyreńskie“ vom Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology der Universität Warschau.
    Current Online Volume: 12 (2013)


    2: Filarska, Barbara: Studia nad dekoracjami architektoniczymi Palmyry.Warszawa, 1967

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    This week, I’m continuing to work on producing a preliminary report for the Western Argolid Regional Project. One of the particular challenges in writing a report is the tension between the granularity of our survey data and the size and complexity of our survey area. As a project committed to conducting siteless, “artifact-level” survey, field walkers spaced 10 m apart collected all artifacts visible on the surface from their 2 m wide swaths. These artifacts were all analyzed and given a chronological range, a functional category, and, whenever possible, a place within existing artifact typologies. At the same time, we also counted each visible artifact using a clicker counter allowing us to have an almost instant assessment of the quantity of sherds present in each walker’s swath and each unit. We recorded this data, along with basic environmental data collected from each unit, on a survey form that we then entered into the project database and projected into our project’s GIS.

    In a traditional intensive survey, artifact densities serve as an indicator of sites in the landscape. These projects then documented these sites with a different level of intensity usually through gridded collection or some other more spatially rigorous sampling strategy. This allowed survey projects to distinguish the assemblages produced by these “on site” practices from those produced by “off site” survey practices which generally involve larger transects and less intensive sampling regimens.

    Artifact level survey, in contrast, tends to emphasize a consistent method for sampling the landscape, in part, because they recognize the complexities of site formation in the landscape and approach any definition of a site with skepticism. In fact, my colleagues and I argued over a decade ago that many sites in the Corinthian represented the complex interplay of assemblages from multiple periods rather than a single “multi-period” site with recognizable continuity in activity. In this context, then, overall artifact densities offer only the coarsest indication of activity in the landscape or, worse, are illusory when they occur only when the edges of unrelated, narrow-period scatters overlap. A growing awareness of geomorphological and geological processes, varying levels of artifact visibility, and changing vegetation, the presence of background disturbances and the character of the surface clast, further complicate any argument that high density sites produce meaning in the landscape. 

    As this approach to intensive survey fundamentally questions the value of artifact densities as the basis for the historical analysis fo the landscape, are artifact densities meaningful in siteless survey? 

    As I work on the WARP preliminary report, I argue that they are for three reasons. First, artifact densities do provide a measure of artifact recovery rates from a particular unit especially when combined with surface conditions like visibility. A unit that produces a high artifact densities in relation to visibility is probably a unit with a significant quantity of material obscured by the independent vagaries of surface conditions. Knowing this kind of information, for example, allows us to consider more carefully issues like the extent and continuity of an artifact scatter datable to a particular period. While we may not be able to control for all the site formation processes that shape a context as complex as the surface, we can sometimes control for the variables that impact artifact recovery from the plowzone.

    The second advantage of collecting density data for intensive survey is that it provides a context to measure the diversity of the assemblage present in a unit. We recognized in studying data from the Eastern Korinthia Archaeological Survey that the chronological and functional diversity of an assemblage tends to increase with artifact densities. In other words, we had very few examples of units where a single period – or even artifact type (think: modern tiles) – increased artifact densities in a significant way. We then applied this realization to lower density units that often result from compromised surface visibility or other conditions. In these contexts, we discovered that some units with low artifact density tend to produce more diverse assemblages than others. These high diversity, low density units may provide windows into more complex scatters that the vagaries of surface conditions and site formation obscured. 

    Finally, artifact densities do provide insights into large-scale, diachronic patterns in the landscape. Diachronic intensively survey has some chronological challenges in that artifact level survey tends to push us to fragment the landscape into the finest periods possible. In some cases, these periods are quite narrow (final decades of the 4th century) and in other cases quite broad (Medieval or Classical-Roman).  The broadest and narrowest periods create some challenges of commensurability as they tend to produce vastly different meanings in the landscape. A narrowly dated artifact, for example, might well represent a particular activity – such as a funeral practices or household activities – whereas a broadly dated artifact tend to represent broader and more persistently uniform functional categories: storage or roofing. Understanding the relationship, then, between landscapes defined by narrower chronological (and usually functional) categories and and those defined by more broad categories is difficult and always risks stripping from countryside the temporal aspect of persistent activities while pocking it with episodic behaviors tied closely to more precisely datable artifacts. Total artifact densities offer a big picture way to see human activity in all its complexity and consistency across the landscape. These densities must, of course, be read critically and contextually, but that’s true of all archaeological evidence.



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    Jarosław Kaczyski, architect of Poland's ruin
    A renowned curator, respected art historian and the brains behind a series of popular exhibitions was fired from the Polish National Museum before Christmas. Reason? He is more talented than the new director, a political appointee. He joins the ranks of excellent Polish ambassadors and patriotic civil servants who have lost jobs because the far-right Polish ruling party prefers spineless loyalists, fears talent, and cares more about party than country (Anne Applebaum).
    In Poland we used to have Party appointments under an authoritarian rule. Some old folk hanker for the old days and are trying to turn the clock back. Their time will pass but the destruction they are causing will remain.

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    What do we learn from the context of these loose objects that we cannot get also from seeing them on eBay or in a car boot sale?

     1 godz.1 godzinę temu1 godzinę temu
    WięcejA-Z PART 1.
    On the run up to Christmas this year I posted a letter a day for 26 days. It finished yesterday with a rather creative Z, but in case you missed any of them, here they are in…

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  • 12/27/18--09:08: Gormless in Ormsgill

  • Code of Practice for 'Responsible' metal detecting in England and Wales
    4. Calling the Police or HM Coastguard, and notifying the landowner/occupier, if you find anything that may be a live explosive, device or other ordnance. Do not attempt to move or interfere with any such explosives. 
    The old superseded 'shut the gates' National Council for Metal Detecting Code of Conduct
    4. If you discover any live ammunition or any lethal object such as an unexploded bomb or mine, do not disturb it. Mark the site carefully and report the find to the local police and landowner.
    Toyz for Boyz (Graham Currie Militaria)
    Of course if you are a moron, one who lives in a terraced council house and never benefited much from being in school, and is not actually able to recognise a mortar shell when you are out metal detecting, no 'Code of Practice' is going to help you become a responsible detectorist. In fact you might end up being a dead detectorist. That'll STOP you taking our past. But then the responsibility does not end there.  Look at the map and what one of them did (Dan Taylor, Bomb experts blow up mortar shell on Walney beach Barrow Central and Dalton 27th Dec 2018)
    A BOMB disposal team has this morning detonated a mortar shell which was found by a man.  The experts arrived at Sandy Gap Beach on Walney this morning to safely blow up the device. Police said a metal detectorist found the explosive at Birkrigg Common in Ulverston and took it home with him to Hazel Gill in Ormsgill, Barrow, yesterday. The man contacted police when he realised what it was he had discovered, an officer said. The man had left the property of his own accord.
    Google earth
    So AnonFinder found a bomb, just for a laugh loaded it in his car and took it ten kilometres home, part of it passing through the builtup areas of Barrow, he kept it in his own terraced house on a council estate. It then had to be transported from there to an open space on the beach (another four kilometres away). Responsible behaviour is not at all a word I would use here.

    But then, look at the beginning of the journey. See it? Birkrigg Stone Circle. Birkrigg common is managed by South Lakes District Council which  has a 'no metal detecting' policy. The area has multiple known interests from Bronze age enclosure, cairns and stone circle, medieval and post-medieval copper mining, Quaker burials etc etc. The guy should not have been here with his metal detector in the first placen and pocketing the artefacts he's hoiked. So that is why he would not have reported his find to the landowner.  And the PAS, the PAS stays silent. 

    Google earth

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    Metal detectorist Pondguru says:
    Fakes are no good - they must be destroyed. In this video I destroy a couple of fakes,
     Published on You Tube by Pondguru Published on 1 Dec 2016 

     For those who have not yet grown out of their chemistry set and who cannot remember, the recipe for thermite that Mr Know-it-all gun-owning Detectorist wants to keep to himself is publicly avail;able in a number of places, including Wikipedia. Having given a 'safety warning', he proceeds to set off two loads of thermite in an area under some trees, with a lot of fallen leaves, coniferous needles and brushwood, and walks away, leaving it overnight. Not the sharpest tool in the box.

    As for the idea of destroying artefacts on the grounds they are 'fakes', first of ll a fake is an artefct, it is a product of human creation that can be valued for that, even if it does not fit the particular set of criteria that satisfy one minority group (coin collectors). Secondly, this sometimes is a subjective judgement and not always accurate Man who was told rare gold coin was fake set to become millionaire after experts realise it is genuine.

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    On the 15th December this image was posted, dated to the 1920s-30s:

    It shows the Arch of Titus, and behind it the Colosseum, from the unusual vantage point of the Palatine hill.  But at this date, of course, it also shows the remains of the ancient Roman fountain, the Meta Sudans, which was demolished soon after by Mussolini.  Unhappily the image is too low-resolution for us to see much of it.  But each photo is precious.

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